Relative Clauses

By | January 21, 2011

Relative-Pronouns
Adjective Clause” olarak da adlandırılan “Relative Clause” lar bize cümle içinde açıklayıcı bir bilgi verir , mesela söyle bir cümlemiz olsun:
– The young woman bumped into me in the street. She gave me a book
Bu iki cümle hangi genç kadından bahsedildiğini belirtmek için birleştirilebilir
– The young woman who bumped into me in the street gave me a book.


who bumped into me in the street” cümlesi esas cümlenin içinde yer alan küçük bir cümledir. Bu cümle “Relative Clause” diye adlandırılır.

İnsanlar için
Who
That

Cansızlar ve Hayvanlar için
Which
That

örn: A building was destroyed in the fire .It has now been rebuilt
The building that/which was destroyed in the fire has now been rebuilt.
örn: Some people were arrested. They have now been released
The people who/that were arrested have now been released.
Who , that , which’ i baazen hiç kullanmasak ta olur
Who,that,which ‘ ten sonra ÖZNESİ olan bir cümle başlıyorsa ; who,that,which ‘ i hiç yazmasak ta olur. Fakat who,that,which bir öznenin yerine kullanılıyorsa mutlaka yazmak zorundayız, bir nesnenin yerine kullanılıyorlarsa yazmasak ta olur.

1.The woman who I wanted to see was away.
– The woman I wanted to see was away.
2.Have you found the keys that you lost
– Have you found the keys you lost
3.The dress that Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well
– The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well

Örn: The woman lives next door. She is a doctor
The woman who lives next door is a doctor ( She düştü yani: özne düştü burada who veya that mutlaka yazılmalıdır.)
Örn: Have you found the keys? you lost them.
Have you found the keys which you lost ( them düştü yani : nesne düştü )
Have you found the keys you lost.

We use WHOSE in relative clause instead of his / her / their
1. We saw some people whose (their) car had broken down
2. A widow is a woman whose (her) husband is dead
3. I met a man whose (her) sister knows you

You can use WHERE in relative clause to talk about a place
1. The hotel – we stayed there – wasn’t very clean
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean
WHAT = the thing (s) that
1. Did you hear what they said ( the things that they said )
2. Tell me what you want and I ‘ ll try to get it for you.
3. I don’t agree with what you ‘ve just said.
4. I don’t trust him. I don’t believe anything that he says (what kullanılmaz)
I don’t believe anything he says.
What kullanılmış olsaydı : anything the thing that he says. OLMAZ
5. They give their children everything that they want. (what kullanılmaz)
They give their children everything they want.
what kullanılmış olsa : everything the thing that they want. OLMAZ
WHOM
Whom sadece yazı ingilizcesinde kullanılır ve who , that , which ‘ in hiç yazılmasa da ( who bir nesnenin yerine kullanılmışsa ) olduğu durumlarda who nun yerine whom kullanılır.
örn: The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday
The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.
The woman I wanted to see was away on holiday.
Whom preposition larla da kullanılır ( to whom , from whom , with whom….)
The woman with whom he fell in love , left him after a few weeks ( he fell in love with her. )

İki tür relative clause vardır:
type 1 : The woman who lives next door is a doctor. ( Burada who kadın hakkında bize bilgi veriyor.)
type 2 : My brother jim , who lives in london, is a doctor. ( Buradaki who my brother’i açıklamıyor çünkü zaaten onun jim olduğu verilmiş —- işte bu tip relative clauseler , extra information veren tiptekilerdir.ve bunlar: iki virgül arasına alınırlar , extra information ,
Extra information veren relative clauselerin özellikleri:
1. Bunlarda that kullanılmaz. yani:
Kişiler için sadece who ,
Nesneler için sadece which kullanılır.
2. who ve which’ i mutlaka kulllanmak zorundasın , ihmal edemezsin.
3. Where , whose ,whom kullanışları yine aynıdır.
örn: john , who speaks french , works as a tourist guide
örn: Colin told me about his new job , which he is enjoying very much ,
örn: We stayed at the Grand hotel , which Ann recommended to us ,
örn: This morning I met Diane , whom / who I hadn’t seen for ages ,
In extra information clauses . You can use a preposition before whom and which ( to whom / with whom / about which / for which…..)
örn: Fortunately we had a map , without which we would have got lost
örn: This is mr carter ; who I was telling you about.
NOT: Konuşma ingilizcesinde ise prepositionlar genellikle relative clausenin verb (fiil) in den sonra gelir.

all of , most of , non of , neither of , any of , either of , some of , many of , much of (a) few of , both of , half of , each of , one of , two of
+ whom (people)
+ which (things)

örn : Marry has three brothers , All of them are married
Mary has three brothers , All of whom are married.
örn: Two men , neither of whom I had ever seen before , come into my office.
örn: They ‘ ve got three cars , two of which they never use.

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